From fake tan to foundation, these beauty innovations have completely reinvented our body image over time…
Hollywood make-up artist Max Factor revolutionised the beauty industry in many ways, even coining the term ‘make-up’, but his creation of Pan-Cake Foundation was possibly the most significant.
Originally concocted for actresses in Technicolour films, the product was frequently stolen from film sets to be used in daily life – this popularity prompted the launch of Pan-Cake as the first commercially-available foundation.
2. Fake tan
In the 1950s scientist Eva Wittgenstein experimented with dihydroxyacetone, the active ingredient in sunless tanners, but it wasn’t until the 1960s that the first consumer sunless tanning lotion appeared when Coppertone introduced Quick Tan or ‘QT’. The orange palms, streaking and poor colouration led to a decline in popularity and it wasn’t until the 1980s that improvements were made to colouring and fading.
Australian Milton Blake is credited as being the first to experiment with sun protection but his formula was unfortunately not that successful. Eugene Schueller, the chemist who later founded L’Oreal, also created a sun cream in 1936, but it wasn’t until Florida physician Benjamin Green created Coppertone suntan cream that an effective sunblock was commercially mass-produced (remember the poster – right).
The opening of King Tutankhamen’s tomb in 1922 fascinated the Western world and sparked a new interest in eye-liner.
The exotic Egyptian kohl eye-liner became associated with fashionable Orientalism in film and soon filtered into mainstream use. The invention of liquid eyeliner in the 1960s paved the way for bolder cat-eye designs.
French chemist Eugene Rimmel developed an early form of mascara using petroleum jelly, but it wasn’t until Tom Lyle Williams developed a product in 1915, simultaneously launching his company Maybelline, that mascara became widely-used.
In 1957 Helena Rubinstein evolved the hard cake formula into a lotion-based cream that more closely resembles the product we know and love.